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Glossary of Terminology
of the Shamanic & Ceremonial Traditions
of the Inca Medicine Lineage

as Practiced in the United States

CAUTION: The inclusion of herbs, symptomatology and treatments for disease within this glossary
is not meant for diagnosis of, nor prescription for treatment of, any medical condition.
This information is included for anthropological and historical study only.



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Ch, Ch' & Chh
F & G
K' & Kh
N & Ñ
P', Ph
Q', Qh
T' & Th


    Use the Firefox browser with the CoolPreviews add on. CoolPreviews will give a magnifying glass icon at every link when you put your cursor on the link. Click on the icon and it will open a separate, smaller window with the definition of the term in it. You can either lock the window by clicking the padlock icon in the top bar of the little window, or move your cursor off the window and it will automatically close. This is almost as good as mouseovers.



    (for most web sites see Text Sources by code letters)


    •Allen, Catherine J.
    The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community. Smithsonian Books (Wash.), 2002.

    •Argüelles, José and Miriam.
    Mandala. Shambala (Berkeley), 1972.

    •Ayani, Jessie Estan.  
    Kintui: Vision of the Incas. Heart of the Sun (MN), 1995.

    •Bastien, Joseph W.
    Drum and Stethoscope: Integrating Ethnomedicine and Biomedicine in Bolivia. Univ. of Utah Press (Salt Lake City), 1992.

    •Bastien, Joseph W.
    Mountain of the Condor: Metaphor and Ritual in an Andean Ayllu. Waveland Press (IL), 1978,

    •Bauer, Brian S.
    The Sacred Landscape of the Inca. U. of Tex. Press (Austin), 1998.

    •Bauer, Brian S. and David S. P. Dearbom.
    Astronomy and Empire in the Ancient Andes: The Cultural Origins of Inca Sky Watching. Univ. of Texas Press (Austin), 1995.

    •Beaver, Paul.
    Diary of an Amazon Jungle Guide: Amazing Encounters with Tropical Nature and Culture. AE Publications (Tampa, FL), 2001.

    •Bertonio, Ludovico.  
    Vocabulario de la Lengua Aymara, 1612.

    •Bigenho, Michelle.  
    Sounding Indigenous: Authenticity in Bolivian Music Performance. Palgrave Macmillan (NY), 2002.

    •Bodley, John H. Preliminary Ethnobotany of the Peruvian Amazon. Reports of In- vestigations, No. 55. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University (Pullman, WA), 1978

    •Bolin, Inge.
    Rituals of Respect. Univ. Texas Press, 1998.

    •Bond, Marybeth (Ed.).
    A Woman's World: True Life Stories of World Travel. Travelers’ Tales (Palo Alto, CA), 2003.

    •Brundage, Burr Cartwright.
    Empire of the Inca. U. of Okla. Press (OK), 1963.

    •Cabieses, Fernando. Dioses y Infermedades: La Medicina en el Antiguo Peru [Gods and Disease: Medicine in Ancient Peru], Vols. I and II. Ediciones e Impresiones -- Artegraf (Lima, Peru), 1974.

    •Calderon, Carlos Camino. El Daño. Librería e Imprenta Gil, S.A. (Lima), 1942.

    •Calderón, Eduardo, with Richard Cowan, Douglas Sharon and F. Kaye Sharon. Eduardo El Curandero: The Words of a Peruvian Healer. North Atlantic Books (Berkeley, CA), 1982.

    •Calvo, César.
    The Three Halves of Ino Moxo. Inner Traditions Int’l. (Vermont), 1995.

    •Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers,
    The Power of Myth, Doubleday (NY), 1988.

    •Castañeda, Carlos.
    Magical Passes: The Practical Wisdom of the Shamans of Ancient Mexico. Harper Perennial (New York), 1998.. Simon and Schuster (NYC). 1981.

    •Castañeda, Carlos.
    The Eagle’s Gift. Simon and Schuster (NYC). 1981.

    •Castañeda, Carlos.
    The Power of Silence. Washington Square Press (NY), 1987.

    •Castañeda, Carlos.
    Tales of Power. Simon and Schuster (NYC), 1974.

    •Castañeda, Carlos. The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. Deluxe edition. University of California Press (Los Angeles), 1998.

    •Chamalú, Louis Espinoza; trans. Hilary Dyke.
    The Gate of Paradise. Gateway Books (Bath, UK), 1991.

    •Clark, Leonard. The Rivers Ran East. Travelers’ Tales (San Francisco), 2001.

    •Classen, Constance.  
    Inca Cosmology and the Human Body. Univ. of Utah Press, 1993.

    •Cobo, Bernabe. Translated and edited by Roland Hamilton.
    Inca Religion and Customs. Univ. of Texas Press, 1990.

    •Collier, John, Jr., and Aníbal Buitrón.
    The Awakening Valley. Instituto Otavaleño de Antropologia (Quito), 1971.

    •Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.
    Quechua Phrasebook. Lonely Planet Publications (Oakland, CA), 2002.

    •Davies, Nigel.
    The Ancient Kingdoms of Peru. Penguin Books (NY), 1997.

    •de Acosta, José.
    The Natural and Moral History of the Indies. Duke Univ. Press, 2002.

    •de Morua, Fray Martin. Historia General del Peru. Dastin Export S.L. (Madrid), 2001 (originally published 1590).

    •Delgado, Jorge Luis, with MaryAnn Male. Andean Awakening: An Inca Guide to Mystical Peru. Council Oak Books (Canada), 2006.

    •Eliade, Mircea. Myths, Dreams, and Mysteries. HarperCollins Publishers (New York), 1979.

    •Elorrieta Salazar, Fernando E. and Edgar Elorrieta Salazar.
    The Sacred Valley of the Incas: Myths and Symbols. Aedo Productions (Orlando), 2003.

    •Emshwiller, E. and J. Doyle. American Journal of Botany, 99:152-164, Jan. 1, 2012.

    •Flores, Juan Ramon and Alex Vega.
    Rumi Maki Fighting Arts. Blue Snake Books (Berkeley), 2007.

    •Foos-Graber, Anya,
    Deathing: An Intelligent Alternative for the Final Moments of Life. Nicolas-Hays, Inc. (Maine), 1989.

    •Furst, Peter T., and Karen B. Reed. Stranger in Our Midst: Guided Culture Change in Highland Guatemala. Latin American Center, University of California (Los Angeles), 1970.

    •Gade,Daniel W.
    Nature and Culture in the Andes. University of Wisconsin Press (Madison) 1999.

    •Gillhoff, Gerd A.
    Crowell’s Spanish-English & English-Spanish Dictionary. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. (NY), 1963.

    •Glass-Coffin: Bonnie. The Gift of Life: Female Spirituality and Healing in Northern Peru. University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque), 1998.

    •Griffiths, Nicholas (ed).
    Spiritual Encounters: Interactions Between Christianity and Native Religions. U. of Birmingham (U.K.), 2001.

    •Hancock, Graham.
    Fingerprints of the Gods. Three Rivers Press (CA), 1996.

    •Harris, Rendel. Boanerges. BiblioBazaar (Charleston), 2010

    •Hemming, John.
    The Conquest of the Incas. Harvest Books, 1973.

    •Hornberger, Esteban and Nancy Hornberger.
    Diccionario Tri-lingue: Quechua of Cusco-English-Spanish [three volumes]. LCA (Cusco), 1977.

    •Ingerman, Sandra.
    Soul Retrieval: Mending the Fragmented Self through Shamanic Practice. HarperSanFrancisco (CA), 1991.

    •Jenkins, Elizabeth B.
    Initiation. Berkley Books (NY), 1996.

    •Jones, David M. and Brian L. Molyneaux.
    Mythology of the American Nations. Hermes House (London, UK), 2004.

    •Joralemon, D. Exploring Medical Anthropology, Chapter 2. Pearson (NYC), 2009.

    •Joralemon, D. and Douglas Sharon. Sorcery and Shamanism: Curanderos and Clients in Northern Peru. Univ. of Utah Press (Salt Lake City), 1993.

    •Jordan, Michael.
    Encyclopedia of Gods. Facts on File, Inc. (NYC), 1993.

    •Keatinge, Richard W.. Peruvian Prehistory: An Overview of Pre-Inca and Inca Society. Cambridge University Press (England), 1988.

    •Kinch, Denise A. A Walk Between Worlds: Truth is Beauty, the Q‘ero. Xlibris Corp (Bloomington, IN), 2010.

    Koss-Chioino, Joan D., MPA. Medical Pluralism in the Andes (Theory and Practice in Medical Anthropology). Routledge (NY), 2002.

    •Krogel, Alison. Food, Power, and Resistance in the Andes: Exploring Quechua Verbal and Visual Narratives. Lexington Books (Lanham, MD), 2012.

    •Ladron de Guevara, Laura. Diccionario Quechua. Editorial Brasa S.A. (Lima), 1998.

    •Lamb, F. Bruce.
    Rio Tigre and Beyond: The Amazon Jungle Medicine of Manuel Córdova. North Atlantic Books (Berkeley), 1985.

    •Langdon, E.J. Matteson and Gerhard Baer.
    Portals of  Power – Shamanism in South America. Univ. of New Mexico (Albuquerque), 1992.

    •Langevan, Michael Peter.
    Secrets of the Ancient Incas. New Page Books (NJ), 2002.

    •Lawlor, Robert.
    Voices of the First Day. Inner Traditions (Rochester, VT), 1991

    •Lee, Vincent R. Choquequirao to Machu Picchu at the speed of light: visual signaling among the Incas. Maney Publishing (Philadelphia, PA), 2010.

    •Luna, Luis Eduardo and Pablo Amaringo.
    Ayahuasca Visions: The Religious Iconography of a Peruvian Shaman. North Atlantic Books (Berkeley, CA), 1999.

    •Littleton, C. Scott, Ed.
    Mythology, Illustrated Anthology of World Myth & Storytelling. Thunder Bay Press (San Diego, CA), 2002.

    •Magee, Matthew.
    Peruvian Shamanism: The Pachakúti Mesa. Middle Field Pub. (MA), 2002.

    •McBride, J. Francis. Flora of Peru. Botanical Series, Field Museum of Natural History, Vol. XIII, Part III, No. 1. 1943

    •McCormack, Sabine. Religion in the Andes: Vision and Imagination in Early Colonial Peru. Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1991

    •Means, Philip Ainsworth.
    Ancient Civilizations of the Andes. Gordian Press (NY), 1973.

    •Mentore, George. Of Passionate Curves and Desirable Cadences: Themes on Waiwai Social Being. University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln), 2005.

    •Mindell, Earl.
    The Shaman‘s Body. HarperCollins (NYC), 1993.

    •Montgomery, Sy.
    Encantado: Pink Dolphin of the Amazon. Houghton Mifflin (Mass.), 2002.

    •Morales, Edmundo. Cocaine: White Gold Rush in Peru. University of Arizona Press (Tucson), 1989.

    •Moseley, Michael.
    The Incas and Their Ancestors. Thames & Hudson (NYC), 2001.

    •Muscutt, Keith. Warriors of the Clouds: A Lost Civilization in the Upper Amazon of Peru.    University of New Mexico Press, 1998.

    •Myss, Carolyn.
    Sacred Contracts: Awakening Your Divine Potential. Harmony Books (NY), 2001.

    •Niles, Susan A. The Shape of Inca History: Narrative and Architecture in an Andean Empire. Univ. of Iowa Press, 1999.

    •Noble, Judith and Jaime Lacasa.
    Introduction to Quechua: Language of the Andes. Passport Books (IL), 1999.

    •Parker, Gary John.
    Ayacucho Quechua Grammar and Dictionary. Mouton (Paris), 1969.

    •Poma de Ayala, Felipe Guaman.
    El primer nueva coronica y buen gobierno (ca. 1560).

    •Rappaport, Joanne and Tom Cummins. Beyond the Lettered City: Indigenous Literacies in the Andes. Duke Univ. Press (Durham), 2012.

    •Rasnake, Roger Neil. Domination and Cultural Resistance: Authority and Power among an Andean People. Duke Univ. Press (Durham), 1988.

    •Rätsch, Christian. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Park Street Press (Rochester, VT), 1998.

    •Ruggles, Clive and Gary Urton. Skywatching in the Ancient World: New Perspectives in Cultural Astronomy. University Press of Colorado (Boulder), 2007

    •Salcamayhua, Pachacuti-Yamqui, An Account of the Antiquities of Peru, 1613.

    •Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro, 1532-1608.
    History of the Incas. Dover Publications (NY), 1999.

    •Sebastiano Sperandeo, Claves para interpreter el Mundo Andino,  Serie ‘Raíces del presente’, 2. Colibrí (Lima) 2001.

    •Sharon, Douglas. Wizard of the Four Winds: A Shaman’s Story. The Free Press (NYC), 1978.

    •Shepherd, Rupert and Robert Maniura, Eds. Presence: The Inherence of the Prototype Within Images and Other Objects. Ashgate Pub Co (Farnham, Surrey, UK), 2006.

    •Steele, Paul Richard. Handbook of Inca Mythology. ABC-CLIO (Santa Barbara, CA), 2004.

    •Sullivan, William.
    The Secret of the Incas: Myth, Astronomy, and the War Against Time. Crown Publishers (New York), 1996.

    •Torrey, E. Fuller. The Mind Game: Witchdoctors and Psychiatrists. Bantam Books (NY), 1972.

    •Urton, Gary.
    At the Crossroads of Earth and Sky: An Andean Cosmology (Latin American Monographs: No. 55). Univ. of Texas Press (Austin), 1988.

    •Verrill, A. Hyatt and Ruth Verrill. America’s Ancient Civilizations. Putnam (NYC), 1953.

    •Villoldo, Alberto; Erik Jendressen.
    Island of the Sun. Destiny Books (Vt.), 1992.

    •Villoldo, Alberto; Erik Jendressen.
    Dance of the Four Winds. Destiny Books (VT), 1995.

    •Villoldo, Alberto.
    Shaman, Healer, Sage. Harmony Books (NY), 2000.

    •Wilcox, Joan Parisi. Keepers of the Ancient Knowledge. Element Books (Boston), 1999.

    •Wilcox, Joan Parisi. Masters of the Living Energy. Inner Traditions (Rochester, VT), 2001.

    •Wolf, Fred Alan.
    The Eagle’s Quest: A Physicist’s Search for Truth in the Heart of the Shamanic World. Simon & Schuster (NY), 1991.

    •Wright, Ronald.  
    Cut Stones and Crossroads.  Viking, (NY), 1984.

    •Young-Sánchez, Margaret.
    Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca. Univ. of Nebraska Press (Lincoln), 2004.

    •Zimmerman, J.E.
    Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Bantam Books (NY), 1971.

    •Zuidema, R. Tom; trans. Jean-Jaques Decoster.
    Inca Civilization in Cuzco. Univ. of Texas Press (Austin), 1986.


    •Ashmead, Albert S.. American Journal of Dermatology and Genito-Urinary Diseases, Volume 14, p 69, January, 1910.

    •Castañeda, Carlos. You Only Live Twice, Details Magazine, Mar. 1994.

    •Cock, Guillermo A. Inca Rescue. National Geographic Magazine, May 2002.

    •Domenici, Viviano and Davide. Talking Knots of the Inka, Archaeology [magazine], November/December1996.

    •Jennings, Justin. Inca Imperialism, Ritual Change, and Cosmological Continuity in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru, Journal of Anthropological Research, Winter 2003.

    •Mann, Charles C. Cracking the Khipu Code. Science, June 13, 2003.

    •Perkins, John. Earth, Shamanism, and the Catholic Church. Gnosis, Fall 1994.

    •Reinhard, Johan. Frozen in Time. National Geographic Magazine, November 1999.

    •Sirotkin, Eric.The Wisdom of Ubuntu,

    •Discovery News, July 3, 2003.

    •Harvard Gazette, May 22, 2003.

    INTERNET SITES (not listed on “Sources” page)


    •Anonymous submission. Notes from Carlos Castañeda,
    Setting up of the path of the warrior. Phoenix Book Store, Los Angeles, CA, Dec. 1993.

    •Patt O’Neill.  Notes from Geshe Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche,
    Tibetan Soul and Life Force Retrieval. Ligmincha Institute, Serenity Ridge, VA. Oct. 17-21, 2001.

    •Patt O’Neill. Notes from Jose Luis Herrera and Alberto Villoldo. Divination Intensive. Providence Zen Center, October 1999.

    •Patt O’Neill.  Notes from Alberto Villoldo.  
    Healing the Light Body.  Anchor Point Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, Aug. 1997 - Aug. 1999.

    •Patt O’Neill. Notes from Jose Luis Herrera,
    Inca Initiation: Mastery Exploration of the Incan Medicine Traditions.  A New Awareness, Sherwood Hills and Eden, Utah. Feb. 2003-Feb. 2004.

    •Patt O’Neill. Notes from Jose Luis Herrera,
    Inca Death Rites.  Monrovia Canyon Park, CA, Oct. 15-17, 2004.

    •Patt O’Neill. Notes from Jose Luis Herrera,
    Soul Recovery.  A New Awareness, Eden, Utah. Feb. 27-30, 2005.

    •Patt O’Neill. Notes from Theo Paredes. Session 1 of
    Apprenticeship Series. Park City, Utah. May 2000.


    •Emshwiller, Eve. Origins of Domestication and Polyploidy in the Andean Tuber Crop Oxalis Tuberosa Molina (Oxalidaceae). Dissertation, Cornell University, January 1999.

    •Gow, David D. The Gods and Social Change in the High Andes. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin (Madison), 1976.

    •Joralemon, Donald. Symbolism and Physiology of Ritual Healing in a Peruvian coastal Community. Dissertation, UCLA (Los Angeles), 1983.

    •Luna , Luis Eduardo. The Concept of Plants as Teachers among four Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeastern Perú. Paper prepared for the Symposium on Shamanism of Phase 2 of the XIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Vancouver, August 20-23, 1983.  Taken from The Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 11 (1984) 135-156, Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.

    •MacBride, J. Francis. Flora of Peru. Botanical Series, Field Museum of Natural History, Volume Xiii, Part III, Number 3, Publication 663, Nov. 17. Field Museum Press,1950.

    •Moseley, Michael E. & Patrick Ryan Williams. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL) Ritual Feting and Religious Conversion in an Ancient Native American Empire. National Endowment for the Humanities, 2003.

    •Rios, Marcelo Arroyo. The Master-healer in Peru: History, Medicine and Magic. Paper published on

    •Schultes, Richard Evans. Ruiz as an Ethnopharmacologist in Peru and Chile. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Vol. 28, No. 1, March 1980

    •Williams, J.E. The Andean Codex. Hampton Roads Publishing (Charlottesville, VA), 2005.

    •Zuidema, R. Tom. (University of Illinois, Urbana IL)
    Pilgrimage and Ritual Movements in Cuzco and the Inca Empire. International Workshop on the Cosmology and Complexity of Pilgrimage, New Delhi, India, January, 1999.


    •IMAX - Amazon, UPC 014381233223, directed by Kieth Merrill. 2004.

    •Eduardo the Healer. Richard A. Cowan, Producer. Serious Business Co. (Oakland, CA), 1978.

    •PBS. Andes: The Dragon’s Back [DVD]. Narrated by F. Murray Abraham. Published by WNET, 2007.

    •Q’ero: In Search of the Last of the Incas, *Nava, Zadoc, Tumi Records (Bath, U.K.), 2008

    Many of the photographs, graphics and some of the text in this glossary are copyrighted and the intellectual property of others. No copyright infringement is intended and no financial gain for any individual will be made from these pages. This glossary has been assembled for educational purposes only and follows the fair use doctrine of the copyright laws.

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First Edition (c) 2007 Patt O'Neill. All rights reserved. This site was originally published 6-13-07
Second Edition (c) 2008 Patt O'Neill. All rights reserved. Published Jan. 2008.
Third Edition (c) 2013 Patt O'Neill. All rights reserved. Published April 2014
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