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Glossary of Terminology
of the Shamanic & Ceremonial Traditions
of the Inca Medicine Lineage

as Practiced in the United States

CAUTION: The inclusion of herbs, symptomatology and treatments for disease within this glossary
is not meant for diagnosis of, nor prescription for treatment of, any medical condition.
This information is included for anthropological and historical study only.



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Ch, Ch' & Chh
F & G
K' & Kh
N & Ñ
P', Ph
Q', Qh
T' & Th


    Use the Firefox browser with the CoolPreview add on. CoolPreview will give a magnifying glass icon at every link when you put your cursor on the link. Click on the icon and it will open a separate, smaller window with the definition of the term in it. You can either lock the window by clicking the padlock icon in the top bar of the little window, or move your cursor off the window and it will automatically close. This is almost as good as mouseovers.

    paint37.tiff                         GLOSSARY NEVER TO BE SOLD

    maca, maca-maca, maino, ayak chichira, ayak willku: (n) Lepidium meyenii. Maca is something of a unique, wonder crop. The only cruciferae known to have been domesticated in the Americas, it is found only in Peru, growing at altitudes over 4,000 meters, where no other crop gives reliable yields. It is extremely hardy and thrives in this inhospitable environment, which is characterized by regular frosts and mean monthly maximum temperatures under 12 degrees C during the growing season. The maca root varies widely in color from yellow and whitish red to black. It has long held a reputation among local people for its miracle properties. It is credited with energizing mind and body, reducing stress, strengthening the immune system, balancing hormone levels, increasing libido and sexual stamina, enhancing fertility in men, and helping to mitigate the negative effects of menopause in women. Experiments have also found maca to contain glucosinolates, substances that prevent the development of cancerous cells. Traditionally the root is boiled, and then mixed with fruit juice and milk to make a thick broth. The fermented juice is also sometimes mixed with other liquors or used in desserts. The root is processed to make flour for bread and biscuits, dried powder, and gelatinized capsules. CIPC Darker colored maca roots (red, purple, black) contain significant amounts of natural iodine that may avoid the growth of goiters resulting from consumption of the lighter colored maca. Black maca is considered the strongest in energy and stamina-promoting properties, being both sweet and slightly bitter in taste. Red maca is becoming popular with many people, and has been clinically shown to reduce prostate size in rats. Small-scale clinical trials performed in men have suggested that maca extracts can improve semen quality, and boost libido. WIKI

    Maca plants. CIPC

    It is cited that maca was eaten by Inca imperial warriors before battles. Their legendary strength allegedly was imparted by the preparatory consumption of copious amounts of maca, fueling formidable warriors. After a city was conquered, the women had to be protected from the Inca warriors, as reportedly they became ambitiously virile from eating such quantities of maca. WIKI

    machacausa: (n) The snake louse, a mariri used in marupa sorcery as well as by healers to convey messages. AYV

    Mach'ácuay, mach'aqway, mach'acuay: (n) The Dark Cloud Constellation of the serpent. Its earthly counterpart is probably Tachymenis peruviana, the only indigenous snake above 12,000 feet. However, the historical literature mentions that inhabitants of the Inca empire living in the Amazon brought huge reptiles (amarus) to the Inca as tribute. Mach'ácuay is observed at the beginning of the rainy season. Because the snake is equated with the rainbow, there is a coincidence of reptilian behavior with the water cycle and the heavenly cycle. It is believed that rainbows arise from a spring and the other end descends into a spring; the rainbow appears and disappears with the rain. The rainbow is seen as a two-headed snake. Snakes come out of the earth during rain so they do not drown and return when the rain ends. The periodicity of the celestial serpent's rising out of the earth and reentering it during the night brackets the rainy season. There is synchronicity between Mach'ácuay, k'uychi, and terrestrial serpents in the Andes. ACES (See, yana phuyu, pachatira.)

    Mach'áquay (Tachymenis peruviana)

    machasqa, machaq: (adj) Drunk. (n) Drinker. QP

    machay: (v) To get drunk. QP

    mach'ay: (n) Sacred caves from which it was believed the ancestors came and in which the mummies (mallquis) of the dead were placed.  MAN ROR (See, Cajatambo.)

    Amaru Mach'ay near cusco and Sacsahuaman, a sculpted cave.

    machinparrani: See, catas.

    machismo (Span): (n) Ideology that stresses male supremacy, virility, and power. It requires men to be providers, protectors, and patrons. GOL Compare, marianismo, below.

    machista (Span): (n) Full of machismo; a male chauvinist. GOL  

    machu: (adj) Ancient, old. (n) Old man. An ancient spirit, either malevolent or benevolent. ROR RS

    Machukuna: (n) Old Ones; quasi-demonic survivors of a previous race. THLH Ancient beings; ancestors; departed loved ones; also commonly referred to as Machula Aulanchis (see below). PSPM

    machula: (adj) Old. RS

    Machula Aulanchis: (n) The Old Grandfathers; the benevolent aspect of the Machukuna (sp). A more general and less personal category of ancestor; they have been dead much longer and lack individuality, like the bones mixed together in the communal pile of the cemetery. THLH Benevolent old ones. Ancient beings; ancestors; departed loved ones. PSPM Our ancestors, the ancestors of us all; revered, benevolent old ones seen as teachers, protectors, and friends; departed loved ones, spiritual teachers, healers, and Sapa Inkas such as Wascar. ANON1

    Machu Picchu: (n) Literally, old peak, the name of one of the most sacred of the Inca sites. It is home of the talking heads and represents the cosmos on Earth. JLH Built by Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, it served as a royal estate and sacred site until just before the arrival of the Spanish and remained hidden and forgotten until rediscovered in 1911 by Yale archaeologist Hiram Bingham. It contains several sites of archeological importance, including the inti watana and the Temple of the Three Windows. MAN A Spanish registrar in the colonial archives in Cusco dated 1568 gives ownership of a city called Picchu to Inca Yupanqui. GMP (See, Tambo Toco.) Click here for a Discovery Channel program about Machu Picchu.  

    A different kind of shot of Machu Picchu. You can really see why
    another meaning for
    picchu is pyramid. Photo © Silvan Rehfeld

    machu wayra: (n) Literally, wind of the old ones. An ambivalent sickening/fertilizing wind that blows over a cemetery, yet is good for the potatoes. THLH

    madre ayahuasca: See, ayahuasca.

    maestro (Span): (n) A great sorcerer. THIM A teacher of shamanism or vegetalismo.

    magical pass: Body position and physical movement that enable sorcerers [and shamans] to navigate their own journeys. Those who practice magical passes gather and redeploy energy, reaching optimal states of vitality and alertness, as well as the opportunity to perceive other worlds. MP

    magnetismo (Span): (n) Magnetism. Usually used in reference to persons, although it is conceived of as a force in nature that is channeled through both living beings and inanimate objects. Magnetic force is one of the innate essences in the individual. For the person who does not put it to work in his body, the essence manifests almost automatically. But he who applies this essence with principles, with wisdom, with knowledge, is a person whose acts lead to an essential, profound triumph. Magnetism operates in everything concerning the natural elements. The earth is crisscrossed by networks of water which are good conductors of the terrestrial magnetic current which governs the individual. In healing with laying on of hands there is pain released by the force of magnetic intuition. The mind corresponds to the electromagnetic field and acts as the general battery. The encephalic cavity is at the same time the accumulator and the generator of currents which govern these things. WOFW  See, cuenta, power, huaca (esp def. 1).

    Magnetism is the activating electrical force of the individual to unite with others. All have a magnetic point, a magnetic force linked with the earth, since all are elements of the earth. Thus by forming a magnetic chain, the attraction of the individuals, the telepathic force, the intellectual effort, unites all beings along this nexus in a magnetic fashion; magnetism is the thread and the telepathic force is the transmission of the elemental force along the thread. WOFW (Compare, ceke.)

    maguey: See, pita.

    maino: See, maca, above.

    maize: (n) According to the legend of Pachakamac, the maize -- and therefore the sanco [and ceremonial chicha] -- was a real god (see, Mama Sara, below), the offspring of Inti and a mythological lonely woman, one should not be surprised by the fact that the conquering Spanish priests were so dumbstruck by the similarities of the Situa ceremony to that of the Roman Catholic Communion. DYE

    mak'alinakuy: (v) To hug each other. QP

    mak'alliy: (v) To hug. QP

    mal aire, mal viento (Span): (n) (1) Literally, evil air, often associated with the spirit of a dead person and can produce illness. The aires are the owners of and command the spaces where they live and can occupy trees, rainbows (k'uychi), thunder, caves and springs (paqarinas). They can cause soul loss, pregnancy, fever, etc. The vegetalistas believe the air is alive and conscious. AYVIn curandero lore, a spirit-power sent to do harm. Mal aire can also suck the blood from children causing the body to twist and contort. GOL  (2) The term mal aire is the origin of the name malaria for the disease caused by living close to the bad air of marshes. DYE

    mal aire de agua (Span): (n) An illness caused by an evil breeze from the water. AYV

    mal aire de difunto (Span): (n) Literally, bad air of the deceased, an illness produced by the spirit of a deceased person. AYV (See, Chai Cullkimama.)

    malas muertes (Span): (n) Literally, evil dead. Renegade souls of people who have died evil deaths and have committed murder or incest. Both are crimes against humanity and belong to the realm of chaos. Such spirits fly through the night and transform into animals. They have Faustian pacts with the Devil. GOL Compare, encanto.

    mal daño,(Span): (n) Evil harm.

    males (Span): (n) [pronounced mah-less] Evils. GOL    

    mal ojo (Span): (n) Evil eye. GOL  

    maleficio (Span): (n) Evil act; sorcery. GOL  

    malero / malera (Span): (n) Evildoer; sorcerer (male or female). GOL  

    maligno (Span): (n) An evil spirit which usually hovers over quiet spots of riverbanks in the summer and may be recognized by the high pitched whistle it gives out. AYV

    malliyachiy: (v) To share your food or drink with another. QP

    mallki: See, mallqui.

    mallku: (n) Spirit of the condor; leader of a group of condors. ROR (2) Male shamans of the fifth level. (See, Inca mallku.) (2) Tree. QNO

    mallqui, mallki: (n) (1) Mummy of an ancestor. The care and veneration of the lineage ayllu mallquis was central to Incan religious practice. Usually stored in caves seen as sacred, at festivals they were dressed in rich clothing, put on display and offered food and drink. MAN Their souls were thought to keep in touch with the living, so the Inca dead were well tended. NGEO3 A royal mummy, but the word also means seed. The message perhaps is that the dead person was being buried like a seed for germination in the afterlife, to be reborn out of darkness. WOFW  Ancestral spirit. GOL See, cult of the dead. (2) Forest. QP Tree; shrub; bush; plant; also ancestor. RS The tree spirits. As most of the nutrition absorbed by trees is through the root system, the shaman feeds the mallquis with earth from sacred ground. When one is feeling disconnected from spirit, healing can come through work with a hatun mallqui, or great tree spirit. Trees are special beings for they are able to feed on k'anchay directly, with roots which draw minerals from Pachamama and a trunk linking heaven and earth. Trees resemble the neuron and can be likened to the nervous system of the planet. Calling upon the mallquis anchors both heaven and earth in consciousness. PSPM Sacred tree spirit, fed in despachos (ritual offerings) by the inclusion of mineral elements such as salt and lodestone (magnetic iron ore); mummy of an Inka or ancestor; one who is connected to the tree (genealogy) of the Inkas. ANON1 (See, falsa cabeza, mummy bundle.)

    It was customary for the dead to retain their personal possessions. In the
    case of royal mummies, that meant keeping their own palaces; their heirs
    were expected to build themselves new ones. There the preserved corpses
    would sit in state, cared for by their clan (panaca). To maintain the illusion
    that normal life continued, the mummies would pay social calls on one
    another, and on important ceremonial occasions, would be brought out
    to attend the festivities in Cusco's main square.

    Mallqui (probably not royal) with falsa cabeza

    mama: (n) General name for a female spirit or deity.  All plants, animals, lakes, rivers, mountains, and meteorological phenomena possess such a spirit. The suffix -mama, added to the name of any animal, is used to designate a gigantic prototype of the species or closely associated with them. Disturbing these animals is dangerous and detrimental to the environment. For instance, if a great anaconda believed to be the mother of a lake is killed, the lake will dry up. Important food plants, psychotropic plants, plants used in medicine and poisons for hunting and fishing are considered to have especially strong mamas. AYV

    Mama Allpa , Allpa Mama: (n) (n) Earth mother; the womb of our world. RS A fertility goddess depicted with multiple breasts. EFD A harvest and earth goddess. Her many breasts were indicative of fertility and the nourishing powers of the earth. WMO

    Mama Allpa peers down from her perch on the
    facade of a women's hospital in Cajamarca.

    mamacha: (n) Female saint. QP

    Mama Coca: (n) The early Spanish observer Francisco de Toledo, ca. 1570 related a myth of coca's origin as follows:Cocamama was first a beautiful woman whose body was evil so they killed her, dividing her in two. From these halves a tree was born, named Cocamama. Anyone eating these leaves, eats her. We carry her in a bag, which we cannot open until we have had intercourse with a woman in memory of her. This tree has many branches, so we call it coca.” (1882, Memorias Antiguas Historales de Peru.) PUE She is the symbol of our spiritual food. IGMP (See, Appendix G  for some early history of coca and Western Civilization.)  (See, also, Mama Sara, mama.)

    Mama Coca presents the coca
    bush to the Spanish invaders
    . EPP

    Mama Cocha, Mama Qocha: (n) (1) Sea; ocean. RS (2) Sea Mother was the sea and fish goddess, protectress of sailors and fishermen. Her husband was Wiracocha. EFD (3) Commonly used in reference to the spirit of Lake Titicaca. PSPM (See, mama.)

    Mama Cunas: See, Mama Kuna.

    Mama Huaco:  In the Inca legend Pachamama took the form of Mama Huaco, who was mysteriously born without a begetter and was associated with serpents and rocks. WOFW

    Mama Igneos: Also known as Lady Candelaria and Lady of the Three Fires (combustion, electricity and solar). She is the mama of the Origin of the Fire (sp). IGMP

    Mama Killa, Mama Quilla: (n) The moon, as an expression of the divine feminine. KOAK As wife to the Sun God, the Inca revered her as a near-deity. THIM Mother Moon or Golden Mother was a marriage, festival and moon goddess and daughter of Wiracocha and Mama Cocha, as well as wife and sister of Inti. By Inti, she was the mother of Manco Capac, Pachakamak, Con and Mama Ocllo. The Empress of the Incan Empire represented here on Earth. EFD She oversaw marriages, feast days and the calendar. She had her own shrine in the Qoricancha. It was decorated with sheets of beaten silver and served by its own priestesses. The Chimu of Ecuador had long venerated the moon as their principal deity and were less than pleased when she was forced to take on a secondary role to Inti by the might of the Inca. IAWS The symbol of the divine feminine: emotions, intuition and magic, also of death and rebirth as it waxes and wanes every month. The term mania, derived from moon, means ecstatic revelation. PSPM The conscious being we call the moon; mother moon, the keeper of the west, overseer of heart-related or emotional shifts and also the shifting ocean waters of the tides. ANON1 (See, mama.)

    The temple to Killa, the moon goddess, at Machu Picchu.

    Mama Kuna, Mama Cuna: (n) Matrons of the Sun who oversaw the akllas, they were themselves the class of aklla known as Guayrur Aklla.  HOI

    Mamamtúa (Amaz): The Mother of all human beings. AYV (See, Pachamama)

    mamanchispa q'apaynin: (n) A phrase meaning our mother's fragrance. It is another name for the coca leaf. Hallpay was invented, according to folklore, when Our Mother lost her child. Wandering aimlessly in her grief, she absentmindedly plucked some coca leaves, chewed on them, and discovered that this eased her pain. Andean people have chewed coca ever since, for life is hard, especially in the puna. Coca helps alleviate life's pain and draws people together in mutual support. THLH

    mamani: (n) Hawk. PSL RS

    Mama Ocllo: Wife and sister of Manco Capac, legendary founder of the Inca lineage and founder of Cusco.

    Mama Oello: A mistransliteration of Mama Ocllo. This one is probably a scanning (OCR) error.

    Mama Pacha: (n) Earth mother goddess. Pachakamak, the primordial creative spirit, emerged from her. WMO (See, Pachamama.)

    mama q'epe: (n) A bundle of ritual paraphernalia wrapped in a colorful cloth. ROR (See, q'epe.)

    Mama Quilla: See, Mama Killa.

    Mamarit'i: (n) The female counterpart of the apu. The princess of a snow-capped sacred mountain. (See, ñust'a, paqarina, itu apu.)

    Mama Sara, Zaramama: (n) Peruvian goddess of grain. Her name means grain mother and she was occasionally incarnated in her own fields in the form of strangely shaped ears of corn or ears that joined in multiple growths. Sometimes these goddess images were made even more like Mama Sara by being dressed as human women in a robe and shawl with a silver clasp. Sometimes, she came to earth in cornstalks which were hung by her worshippers on willow trees; festive dances were held around the willows, then the cornstalks were burned, assuring a plentiful supply of corn. WPO She is the symbol of our physical food. IGMP (See, Mama Coca, mama.)


    mana: (adv) Negation, no, not. RS

    mana allin: (adj) Bad. QP

    mana allin yuyayniyuq: (adj) Stupid. QP

    manan imapas: (n) Nothing. QP

    manan niy: (v) To deny. QP

    mana puñuy atipay: (n) Insomnia. QP

    mana samayniyuq: (n) Breathlessness. QP

    mana umayoc: (n) Poor memory. DYE See, ancha umanuan hopik.

    manayma circapas: (adj) Of low ability. DYE

    Mancca Pacha (AYM): (n) The Ukhupacha. Mancca means to eat, therefore, this is named for the aspect of Pachamama that eats our heavy energies. IGMP (See, mikhuy.)
    Manco Capac: (1) The name of the first Inca king, founder of Cusco. Son of Inti, husband/brother of Mama Ocllo. Also known as Ayar Manco. MAN God of fire and progenitor of the Incas. GM He and his brothers (Ayar Anca, Ayar Cachi and Ayar Uchu) and sisters (Mama Ocllo, Mama Huaco, Mama Raua and Mama Cura) lived near Cusco and united their people to conquer the tribes of the Cusco Valley. With his sister-wife, Mama Ocllo, Manco Capac had a son named Sinchi Roca (who is believed to be historical). WIC Legendary name of the first Inca sent from Hatun Inti. The name derives from Mallku, meaning the leader who flies, and Qhapaq, meaning the one who has the power. IGMP At the end of his life, he was turned into stone. IAWS (2) The last Incan Emperor was also named Manco Capac. He was the son of Huayna Capac, and was crowned in 1534 by Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish conquistador. He was allowed to rule only as a puppet of the Spanish Empire, however, until he escaped and raised and army, attacking Cusco in 1536. The unsuccessful siege lasted ten months and destroyed the city. Manco Capac then launched a guerilla campaign until being murdered in 1544. (See, Appendix H.) WIC

    paint43.tiff           paint44.tiff

    manchakuy, mancharikuy: (v) To be afraid. PSL

    manchari: (n) Fright, one of the reasons for soul loss. AYV

    mancharichikuyniyuq: (adj) Awesome. Imposing.RS

    mancharisqa: (adj) Fearful and frightened. TGOP

    manchay: (n) Danger. QP

    mandala (Sanskrit): (n) Quaternary structuring of mandala constructions is also a universal characteristic of the human psyche. WOFW See, remolina and medicine wheel.

    manguaré (Amaz): (n) A drum made of a hollow log used as a jungle telegraph and to invoke deities and wake up the spirits of the ancestors.  THIM

    manqhue chuyma (AYM): (n) The interior of the heart or thoughts. ASD

    manqu wasi: (n) Temple. QP

    manta: (n) Blanket. RS

    mañakuq: (n) Prayer. QP

    mañakuy: (v) To ask for something, to pray. QP

    mañaqa: (n) Offer. Offer of marriage. RS

    mañaway: (exp) A polite way of saying “give me;” only used when addressing a single person or being; e.g., “Pachamama, ama hina munayniykita mañaway” means “Pachamama, please give me/us your love.” ANON1

    mañawaychis: (exp) As above in mañaway, but for multiple subjects; e.g., “Apukuna, Mallkikuna, Awkikuna, ama hina k'anchayniykita mañawaychis” means “Apus, Mallkis, Awkis, please give me/us your light.” ANON1

    mapacho: (n) Nicotiana rustica, a strong jungle tobacco used ceremonially by tabaqueros and other vegetalistas. The vegetalista places tobacco as an offering to the ayahuasca spirit before cutting it. AYV The food of the mariri: if not nourished with mapacho smoke the mariri can come out of the mouth of the vegetalista, exposing him to the danger of having it cut off by a brujo, and thus remain unprotected. EMM Wild Amazonian tobacco commonly made into large hand-rolled cigarettes or used in small wooden pipes. It is an extremely powerful intoxicant. When smoked in moderation, it can cause mild euphoria, muscle weakness, and stupor, then sleep (often with vivid dreams when smoked in excess). It is an integral part of Amazonian shamanic practice and is used extensively in healing ceremonies to cleanse the patient [like smudge]. ACAI


    map'a: (adj) Awful. QP

    maqchhiy: (v) To wash (general, not personal). QP (See, t'aqsay and armakuy.)

    maque, macqui, Maquei, Chilean wineberry: (n) The leaves are used in throat complaints, to wash mouth ulcers and as a febrifuge. It has been shown to have a relaxing action on muscular fibers.  It is used against intestinal tumors, tonsil inflammation, burns, diarrhea, and as an analgesic. The fruit is rich in antonians. It is astringent and refreshing; as an infusion is administered for fever, diarrhea and dysentery. WFP The fresh shoots, crushed and applied to the back and the area of the kidneys, lessen excessive heat in these parts of the body during fevers; when chewed, they cleanse and heal sores of the mouth. REPC


    Maras: (n) A tribe/ayllu from the enclave of the same name that held great importance in the pre-Inka and Inka-controlled Andes based on nearby salt mines vital to the economy of pan-Andean empires. ANON1 Maras is a town in the Sacred Valley, 40 kilometers north of Cusco. The town is well known for its nearby salt evaporation ponds, up-slope, less than a kilometer west of the town. Also called Salinas de Maras, these salt-mines have been used for many centuries. The salt mines have been exploited since Inca times and during the Vice-regency, it was the largest salt producer of the southern highlands. The people channel the salt water that bubbles to the surface from a spring called Qoripujio [Golden Spring] towards man-made wells. From the exposure to the sun, the water evaporates and the salt remains on the surface to be transported later to the market to be sold. The view of this complex of nearly 3000 wells is spectacular. Walking on the ridges between the wells is a stringent test of balance.WIKI See, Appendix N.

    Salt beds at Maras.

    Maras Toco: (n) The salty cave at Tambo Toco. NFL The cave, as represented as a chamber in the Ukhupacha, where one goes to view the deeds and misdeeds of the client, as well as his/her soul contracts and personal past. JLH (See, Tambo Toco, Sutic Toco and Capac Toco.)

    mareación (Span): (n) (1) The visionary effect of ayahuasca. (2) Such a vision. AYV

    mareación ciega (Span): (n) Literally, blind vomiting or nausea. SEES A blind dizziness produced by ingesting certain plant teachers. MSIN  

    marianismo (Span): (n) Marianism; an ideology that stresses female purity, chastity, sacrifice, and identification with the Virgin Mary. GOL  Compare, machismo, above.

    maripuri: (n) The spider, a mariri used in marupa sorcery as well as by healers to convey messages. AYV

    mariri: (n) (1) Healing stones. JLH (2) Magical phlegm; an enchantment. Icaros are a form of mariri. The magical phlegm could be one more element of a postulated shamanistic complex of vast temporal and geographical amplitude -- perhaps of Amazonian origin -- including the use of psychotropic plants, the jaguar-transformation motif, and representations of anacondas and other forest animals. AYV (See, runauturuncu.) The magical phlegm of a vegetalista, a rather mysterious substance that can be regurgitated at will, which work as spiritual and energetical defence. It is the ultimate defensive weapon of a curandero. In essence the mariri is used for protection from virotes: when a curandero feels he is under attack from a virote, he immediately calls up his mariri. Like the icaros, the mariris can be received either from the plants or from a maestro. When inherited from another maestro, the mariri is physically passed on from mouth to mouth, via the hands. It can be either used as a defense, to return the attack of an opponent, or to heal. EMM Once the mariri has been "planted" in the initiate, it will grow like a plant. Its development depends on the length of the diet. MSIN  (See, yachay, mapacho.)

    markachana: (n) A small cave in a ceremonial corral used to burn an offering. Also called q'oyana. ROR

    Markawasi: (n) A small plateau (about two miles long by a little over half a mile wide) in the Andes, towering above the town of San Pedro de Casta (50 miles northeast of Lima), at an elevation of over 12,000 feet supporting reputed ancient monumental stone sculptures. Here, some claimed, were to be found the remains of a lost culture that dates back thousands of years, if not tens of thousands of years or more. Supposedly they created monumental carvings from the granodiorite cliffs, boulders, and outcroppings on the top of the plateau – carvings of an anthropomorphic and zoomorphic nature, including peoples of many different races and animals found not just in the immediate vicinity, but from other continents as well. If these reports were true, this would indicate a pre-Columbian culture that had transoceanic ties, and just perhaps it represented a branch of the primordial global lost civilization of which many writers and philosophers have speculated over the centuries. RSN Click here for a video.

    Stone heads at Markawasi.

    marmicuña (AYM): (n) Husband and wife. ASD

    marriage (Eng): (n) Marriage was an official ceremony performed by the civil authorities, and the unions were usually made outside the family bounds. Incestuous marriage was severely forbidden, except for the Inca himself. (Only the first and the last three Incas took advantage of this privilege.) However, complete freedom of choice of partner was limited by strict rules controlling human migrations, class segregation and economy. Yet there was ample margin for courtship and marriage for love, and one of the most beautiful aspects of the Inca culture is the poetry and drama of their love-laden legends. And to the words and the music of their romantic poems, they added the powerful effects of magic and witchcraft aided by a whole score of aphrodisiacs which are mentioned ... by the chroniclers. The lower class was monogamous by law, but the men of the elite would have as many wives and concubines as the Inca rulers allotted them in accordance with their importance in the community. It is said that some of the Incas had as many as 300 wives and concubines, although the first and main wife, the Qoya, played a role which far surpassed that of the other women of the realm. DYE See, pregnancy.

    marupa (Amaz): (n) An animal sent by a sorcerer to inflict harm. AYV (See, hechicería marupa.)

    marupa machaco (Amaz): (n) A mythic, multi-colored serpent whose icaro is sung by vegetalistas who swallow the virotes they extract that are made from poisonous snakes, fish quills, or wasp and scorpion stingers. AYV

    mascca: (n) Indian women use the bark of this root to prepare a wash to cleanse and stimulate hair. Intensely bitter, the bark forms a lather like that of soap. REPC [This plant was identified as a polygala, a large genus of flowering plants commonly known as milkworts or snakeroots. I was unable to identify the exact species. -- Patt]

    masha-yakuruna (Amaz): (n) A yakuruna ally of the murayas, he teaches them how to rescue people lost in the watery depths. AYV

    mashua, añu: (n) Tropaeolum tuberosum. A species of flowering plant grown in the Andes for its edible tuber which is eaten as a root vegetable. It is a major food source there. Native to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Mashua has putative anaphrodisiac effects. It has been recorded by the Spanish chronicler Cobo that mashua was fed to their armies by the Inca Emperors, "that they should forget their wives". Studies of male rats fed on mashua tubers have shown a 45% drop in testosterone levels. WIKI Mashua is a traditional diuretic and remedy for kidney ailments. More recently it has been shown to prevent the development of cancerous cells in stomach, colon, skin, and prostate. Despite its high nutritional value, mashua is not widely commercialized. Because it is used in traditional medicine to regulate libido (the Incas reportedly used it to dampen sexual desire in campaigning armies), men are reluctant to eat it. CIPC


    masi: (adj) Equal. (n) Comrade; colleague; friend; fellow; peer. RS

    masichakuy: (n) The act of joining two similar energy bubbles. (See, yanachakuy, yanantin, masintin). RS

    masintin: (n) A relationship of two similar things. Harmonious relationship between similar things; homologous. ”Yanantin is the ring, masantin is the resonance inside the ring.” Masintin is also a dissimilar quality that is complementary. The zero point of this is ranti. JLH RS

    maskhay: (v) To look for. TLD

    maskaypacha: (n) Looking for the essence of the cosmos. (1) The Inca's headband. IGMP RS (2) Insignia on a head-piece. TLD (See, llautu, accorasi.)

    mastana, mestana: (n) A blanket used as a covering for the mesa. OMQ (See, lliklla, unkhuña.)

    masteurzo, capuchinas:  (n) Tropaeolum majus.  Also known as garden nasturtium, Indian cress or monks cress. the Peruvian natives frequently employ this plant to treat scurvy and mouth sores. REPC

    The Elizabeth Linnæus Phenomenon, is the name given to the phenomenon of "flashing flowers."  Especially at dusk, these orange flowers may appear to emit small "flashes." Once believed to be an electrical phenomenon, it is today thought to be an optical reaction in the human eye caused by the contrast between the orange flowers and the surrounding green. The phenomenon is named after Carl Linnaeus' daughter, who discovered it at age 19. WIKI

    Masteurzo, or nasturtium,
    foliage and flowers
    . WIKI

    mast'ay, mastai: (v) (1) Make oneself available to. To reveal oneself. (2) To spread out, to extend. PSL
    (n) An aperture.

    matapalo, higuerote: (n) Clusia trioecia. In their churches, Peruvians burn the beautiful resin that flows abundantly from these trees instead of olive incense. The resin, in amorphous masses often weighing a pound and a half, is between reddish and golden in color, and nearly transparent. It is very shiny and hard, even when freshly gathered from the tree. PFU This strangler [an epiphytic vine or tree whose aerial roots extend down the trunk of a supporting tree and coalesce around it eventually strangling the tree. WWPE] yields a resin which is highly esteemed in Peru for curing ruptures and fractures. REPC

    matecllu: (n) A water plant whose leaf juice was used to clear the eyes. A poultice made fromt he bruised leaves was very effective in correcting some forms of blindness and relieving eye pain. ACA

    Mauqallqta: (n) The name of the modern town near the sites of Pacaritambo and Tambo Toco. MAN

    maycha: (n) (1) Medicinal high-altitude plant also used to start fires for offerings. (2) A pejorative reference to a healer of dubious ability. ROR

    mayco (AYM): (n) King. ASD

    maycoña (AYM): (n) Kingdom. ASD

    Mayta Capac: The name of the legendary fourth Inca emperor of the later 12th Century. MAN He developed an arresting personality. He was very brave in war and very melancholic in daily life. Wholly devoted to the established idols, he was a very wise man who knew all the herbs and medicines as well as the forthcoming events and times. His reign was noted for the influence which the magicians and astrologers had in that epoch. He was himself a healer and devoted most of his time to meditation and severe fasting. Being a capable administrator of the human soul, he knew how to take advantage of the influence of the holy men of the community in order to maintain peace in the empire. Even his private life was influenced by the divine calling since he married Mama Tarpu Cori of the ayllu Tarpuntaes (of the most pure priestly caste), and gave her the surname of Mama Coca. He was later poisoned by his sister-in-law, Cusi Chimbo. DYE

    It seems that Mayta Capac was born with teeth, and when he was only one year old he had the appearance and strength of a lad of eight. When he was only two years old, he was a full grown man who could fight and vanquish all the boys in the imperial court. Some chroniclers called him the Inca Hercules. DYE  


    Mayu:(n) (1) River. ROR JLH RS (2) The Milky Way, a celestial river, whose movements were observed by the Inca from the Qoricancha in Cusco. In Inca cosmology, the movements of Mayu were the starting point for calendrical correlations with natural changes on the earth. From these observations they organized daily, seasonal and annual labor and ritual. This is in contrast to most cultures that took their charting from the closest celestial bodies of the sun and moon. The intercardinal axes of Mayu corresponded to the routes out of Cusco to the Tawantinsuyu and ceke alignments. MAN During the 24 hours that it crosses zenith, Mayu forms two intersecting, intercardinal axes (NE - SW and SE - NW). These great luminous axial lines create a grid for the entire celestial sphere, dividing it into four quarters, called sayu. All other astronomical phenomena can then be plotted and characterized by the quarters in which they occur or travel across. MAR The Inca also recognized dark cloud constellations (see, pachatira). The Incas were convinced that their fate was intertwined with the movements of the stars and planets. The stars foretold their civilization's doom in 1532 in nothing less than a dire warning of an impending precessional event that, to the Incas, predicted future ruin. Drawing on their ancient mythological database, the Incas reasoned (from the principle “as above, so below”) that loss of contact with the ancestors, upon which their religious beliefs were founded (see, mallqui), would mean their way of life would be destroyed on Earth. The gate or bridge to the land of the ancestors -- that is, the rising of the December solstice Sun with the Milky Way -- was about to be washed away. Drawing on their ancient mythological database, the Incas reasoned that loss of contact with the ancestors would mean their way of life would be destroyed on Earth. SIMA (3) Mayu is the shaman's road. The celestial river passes beneath the Earth after first entering the cosmic sea in the west. We can well imagine the tremendous mixing and crossing of subterranean water, earth and animals which occurs as Mayu passes beneath the earth and how, therefore, the animals in the sky are intimately connected with the animals of the earth. Mayu is actually made up of two rivers, not one. The two Mayus originate at a common point in the north, flow in opposite directions from north to south, and collide head on in the southern Milky Way. The bright stellar clouds in this part of the Milky Way represent the foam resulting from the celestial collision. Both “ends” of the Milky Way are subterranean for a period of time in their revolution around their respective pole. But since the Milky Way is inclined with respect to the plane of the earth's rotational axis, one center of the Mayu will be above ground while the opposite center is below ground. The water in the Celestial River enters the celestial sphere when the northern end of the Mayu is underground (i.e., when it is in the cosmic ocean) since the point of origin of the Celestial River is in the north, whereas the point of union of the Rivers is in the south. Thus, while terrestrial rivers conduct water downward (rain > streams > rivers moving downward), the Celestial River recycles water upward (Cosmic Ocean > northern Milky Way moving upward). The Milky Way is therefore an integral part of the continual recycling of water throughout the Quechua universe. ACES  (See, Southern Cross.)

    Def. 2.

    (Def. 3) The cosmic circulation of water via Mayu as it would be seen from
    space. The earth is visualized as an orange floating in a bowl of water. ACES

    mediation of opposites (Eng): (n) A philosophical theory by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831). He developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. WIKI The theory of mediation involves the view that relative opposites are conceptually … unified. Hegel's theory … is that ...  all opposites are relative. OCM (Compare, coincidentia oppositorum.)

    There are people who suffer too much, who are in chaos, in life as in death.
    Thus it is necessary to give them relief without prejudice, without
    discriminating against a particular disposition; to dispense good in an
    absolute fashion without condescension, without selfishness, without restrictions.
    -- Eduardo el Curandero WOFW (See, tukuy munayniyoc.)

    medicina (Span): (n) Medicine.

    medicina de estudio (Span): (n) Literally, studied medicine. Western, allopathic medicine. MSIN  

    The greatest mistake in the treatment of diseases is that there are physicians for the body and physicians for the soul, although the two cannot be separated. — Plato

    Adherents of the scientific world view fondly believe that once people become familiar with Western medicine they will quickly forget “all that supernatural nonsense” and turn their backs on the indigenous healer. Not so. SOM    

    Medicine can and will change. It can adapt itself to working with nonmedical therapists. Both these therapists and their techniques can be adopted and
    used to improve mental health services. The brew can be distilled, with the supernatant retained and the residue discarded. And this can be done
    despite the hoary traditions of medicine and psychiatry, feet firmly planted
    in the medieval guild systems, voices echoing “You just can't do that!”
    with each footstep down the hall of innovation.

    medicine: (n) (Eng) (1) The mastery of the uses of the realms of space/time, energy and spirit for healing, personal power, divination, and protection. (2) Shamanic healing. PGO

    medicine wheel: (n) (Eng) A name first applied to the Big Horn Medicine Wheel located on a ridge of Medicine Mountain, part of northern Wyoming's Big Horn Range. It is a sacred site built about 200 years ago. BGH The Medicine Wheel is representative of American Indian Spirituality. The Medicine Wheel symbolizes the individual journey we each must take to find our own path. Within a medicine wheel are the Four Cardinal Directions. CHE Medicine wheels are used all over the world (Stonehenge is a medicine wheel), although the English term comes from Native Americans of the United States. A Tibetan will call it kalachakra; a Hindu, mandala; a Taoist, pa qua. All medicine wheels are representations of the universes of space/time and of energy and spirit. With the exception of the pa gua, every medicine wheel represents (at least) the four directions and the four elements (earth, air, fire, water), with the center representing the individual. PGO

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    menstruation: (n) The monthly bleeding of human women is so attractive to water spirits that many native women in the Amazon rain forest will not travel by boat or even cross the water during this time. There are beliefs that such spirits will kidnap menstruating women to impregnate them. AYV (See, bufeo colorado, yakuruna.)

    mercado de brujos (Span): (n) A witches´ market found in many Peruvian towns, ANON1 (See, brujo.)

    Dark gray condor feathers hang next to the bright blues, yellows and reds of macaws. On the wall are ocelot and other animal skins. Dried iridescent blue hummingbirds used to cure el susto hang in bunches from the ceiling. Red and black-eyed wayrurus used to attract good luck and ward off the evil eye, scented waters called agua florida, religious relics, magical stones, resins for incense, statues of saints and Andean deities -- all these are packed on the narrow shelves. ACAI

    mermaid (Eng): A common belief among mestizo and native Amazonians, mermaids are often invoked in ayahuasca sessions. It is believed that some powerful shamans are the offspring of mermaid and human unions. Mermaids serve murayas and are themselves the rulers of fish and dolphins. They may adopt the form of a human woman in order to seduce a man and take him to her watery abode. Some vegetalistas summon mermaids when performing love magic. Although the mermaid was almost certainly borrowed from the Europeans, there were surely existing female water spirits in the indigenous belief system. The European church associated mermaids with the Devil, but they are a common motif in the church art of southern Peru and Bolivia. Mermaids only come out in sublime trances to cure sicknesses of the water. AYV The mermaid (sirena) is associated with water boas (anacondas). MSIN (See, wiracocha mermaids, awka sirenas, picture at yakumama.)


    Mermaids in the river, a detail from a painting by vegetalista
    Pablo Amaringo of one of his visions.

    merulaguén: (n) Linum confertum. An infusion and decoction [of this plant] are frequently prescribed in treating catarrhal coughs and lung ailments. When crushed and mixed with urine, the plant can be applied as a poultice to dissolve various kinds of tumours. REPC

    mesa (Span): (n) (1) Literally, table. A derivation of misa, the Spanish word for the Catholic Mass. TP ACES Ritual or medicine bundle containing khuyas and other objects of power which the shaman uses to assemble his/her reality and uses in ceremonies and healing. The mesa is used in the Andes and on the coast, but not in the jungle; the Andean mesa is small. TP The sacred healing altar which works in mediation with spiritual and cosmic forces for ritual healing, both on individual and collective levels; a collection of sacred objects imbued with unseen forces and energies which can be the catalyst for healing. PSPM The mesa appears to reflect the aboriginal imago mundi that is very old. Anthropologists are just beginning to discern the dim outlines of this ancient world view and its varied manifestations. It has been used in early Spanish historical records it has been used to denote spiritual food. WOFW (2) The ritual space with ceremonial objects. EMM (3) In curanderismo, a curandero's practice (business), as in: “He did not feel ready to establish his own mesa.” (4) Sacred dialogue. KOAK AVO JLH (5) In northern Peru, it also means the ritual that is performed with these sacred power objects. WOFW (6) In Aymara shamanism, small square specialized stones. They have different uses; some are used as spirit seatsWOFW  The Spanish word mesa is derived from the Latin mensa, which means table, or more specifically, altar table. In Roman Catholicism, the Latin term mensa refers to a flat stone that was embedded in the altars of all pre-Vatican II churches containing the relic of a saint or holy object, which was believed to make the altar sacred. See, Aymara mesa for more information. PSPM See, curandero mesa for specific definitions relating to the specialized mesa of curanderismo.  

    A closed paq'okuna mesa with the outer
    cloth folded in the traditional manner.

    An open mesa in a four directions configuration.

    Both images from

    mesa curanderismo  (Span): (n) The ritual art of the curandero using the mesa (see, mesa, above) to intermediate between the worlds to bring healing and harmony. PSPM

    mesa de manjares (Span): Literally, food table. The mesa carried by the guacacue shamans. A mesa of refreshments which recruit the spirits. WOFW  

    mesa negra (Span): (n) Black mesa; the defending side of some curandero's mesas. GOL  

    mesarumi: (n) From mesa (Span), table, and rumi, stone. A sacred altar. ROR

    mesa tumbolo (Span): (n) From tumbolo, to fall down or tumble. A ritual Aymara table for the dead where the soul(s) can come to eat and visit for twenty-four hours during the Feast of the Dead on November 2. WOFW  

    mesayoq, mesayoc: (n) Quester of power thru the mesa. RS Mesayoqs develop a mesa and cosmology of power relationships. The mesa is an alter ego. It is medicine of the right, the mystical. JLH (See, kamayoq.)

    metaphysical clock (Eng): (n) The séance of the curandero is a 24 hour cycle during which the curandero dramatizes the theme of death and rebirth, that reverses normal concepts regarding the theme of death and rebirth, reverses normal concepts regarding the progression of the hours of the day and seasons of the year. It must also be kept in mind that Peru is in the Southern Hemisphere where the seasons are reversed vis-a-vis the calendar. WOFW

    Metaphysical clock for Southern Hemisphere. Click here for larger view.

    midwife (Eng): (n) Although easy deliveries were the majority of the cases, there were some obstetrical complications which required outside attention. Spanish chronicler Bernabe Cobo tells us that “there were also midwives… they knew how to care for pregnant women and could straighten the child by massaging the abdomen.” Difficult deliveries were frequently performed with the assistance of one or more attendants. DYE See, pregnancy and breech birth.

    Mochica ceramic of an assisted delivery. DYE

    mihuy: See, mikhuy. QP

    mikhuchiy: (v) To feed. RSL

    mikhuna: (n) Food. PSL An offering of food for the spirits. ANON1

    mikhuna wasi: (n) Restaurant. QP

    mikhushanqu: (n) Ritual feeding. Unseen forces and energies are absorbed and digested in the qosqo. PSPM See, mikhuy, below Compare, hucha mikhuy.

    mikhuy, mihuy: (v) (1) To eat. (2) Shamanically, the digesting of hucha from a person, place or situation in order to cleanse it and bring it back into ayni. KOAK AVO Feeding on, or absorbing, unseen energy of both a refined and dense nature in a ritual process. PSPM (n) Food. QP (See, mikhuna and hucha mikhuy.) Compare, mikhushanku, above.

    Millaipa-huarmi: (n) Literally, ugly woman, who performs a great task in the curanderismo, since she gathers the sickness that the curandero extracts from the patient. In the image below, the younger one, dressed in sky-blue, picks up the sickness and contains it in her hands. If the patient does not diet, she returns the sickness, as she hasn't enough power to hold back the evil spell, and the sick one gets worse again. But if the patient cooperates with the master curandero and diets, this woman places the evil spell in the lap of the aged woman, dressed in lilac, who makes it disappear inside the whirlwind of her large dress and the evil spell returns no more. AYV [Vegetalistas will refer to their craft as curanderismo and themselves, sometimes, as curanderos. The two traditions -- vegetalismo and curanderismo -- are considered to be different by Westerners.]


    millanayay: (n) Nausea. QP

    millmahina : See, saccropa.

    millu: (n) Rock of aluminum sulfate used by shamans to diagnose illnesses by its color change when thrown into a fire. PSL

    Millu, also known as aluminum sulfate.

    milluy: (v) To use the millu to diagnose a sickness. PSL

    mink'a: (n) Communal labor done for communal good; service; mutual work given for returned work. JLH RS Reciprocal agreement under which a person invites others to work for him in return for providing food and drink; a work bee [like a barn-raising]. The beneficiary is usually obligated to return labor when called upon. (Also known as ayni, though this has a slightly different meaning in some areas.) CSCR

    mink'ay: (v) To hire work for returned work instead of pay; to hire a substitute. PSL

    miña (Amaz): (n) The primordial world. AYV

    misa: (n) Catholic Mass (sp). QP  (See, mesa.)

    misarumi: (n) Bastardized term using the Spanish-origin misa ( see, above) referring to the centerpiece of a mesa (see, above) altar (sp). ANON1

    Miscayani: (n) A mythical city that is the dwelling place of the Inkari; the feminine counterpart of Paytiti. KOAK The mythical city inhabited by highly evolved and extremely beautiful spiritual women, revealed in Q'ero mythology, the female counterpart to the myth of Paytiti. RS

    misha, misha rey, misha blanca: See, datura.

    misho chaqui: (n) Helicostylis tomentosa. In Amazonia the inner bark of this tree is said to be used as a hallucinogen. Animal tests have shown that rats exhibit the same symptoms after ingesting this plant as they do when inebriated with cannabis. EPP

    Misho chaqui.

    misk'i: (adj) Sweet, good tasting. (n) Honey, sugar. PSL QP

    mismarumi: (n) A sandstone representing the celebrants in a ceremony (sp.). SAI (See, rumi.)

    Misminay: The name of a town in Peru 16 miles south of Cusco where the people still observe Mayu and apply cosmological and mythological meaning just as their ancestors did. The nearby Vilcanota River is regarded as a reflection of Mayu and the two are seen as conduits for recycling water from earth to sky and back again. MAN (See, pachatira, yana phuyu.)

    mitayo: (n) One doing mit'a labor (sp). GPA

    mit'a: (n) Public labor; tribute to the Inca empire, which included working land and herding llama on imperial land and performing a quota of work at a state installation. MAN Labor taken in turns. ICC Under the Incas the mit'a was a labor tax by which the state enlisted workers in return for providing a measure of social security. Under the Spanish the mit'a became forced labor in the mines, so onerous that it is known to have killed several million people and depopulated large areas of the Andes. CSCR (See, ayllu, cargo.)

    mitima: (n) A person who has been relocated. ICC (See, mitimaes.)

    mitimaes, mitmacs: (n) Groups of people of one province whom the Inca settled in another part of the empire in order to organize social and economic control.  This practice had an impact on the homogenization of spiritual beliefs within the culture. MAN (See, hatun runa.) Spy-in-residence technique of control. By means of this constant control, the enemies of the Inca were shorn of their capacity for conspiracy. EOTI

    mocura: (n) Taken orally or used in floral baths to raise energy, or take you out of a saladera. This plant gives mental strength and you can feel its effects as with ajosacha -- both are varieties of garlic and have a penetrating aroma. Mental strength means it could be good to counter shyness, find one's personal value or authority. Medicinal properties include asthma, bronchitis, reduction of fat and cholesterol. Considered a great plant teacher. SCU

    mocha: (n) A blown kiss, a pre-Columbian gesture of reverence for holy objects and places that is still practiced by highland Indians. WOFW  The sacred kiss to invoke the gods, a ceremony that was later recorded and described by Spanish priests during the early 1600's. GOL

    Mochica vase showing a tattooed man in the act of mocha, or ritual kissing. DYE

    Moche: (n) See, Appendix N.

    Molina and Ginés: Two soldiers, who formed part of the first group led by Pizarro, became separated from their companions and reportedly were taken to the presence of the reigning Inca Huayna Capac, where they arrived “pale and discolored.” Promptly sentenced to death by Huayna Capac, they became the first human bacteriological bombs of the battle for Peru. The emperor himself and his successor Ninán Cuyúnchic contracted the imported illness within three weeks and died from it leaving the crown to be disputed between Waskar and Atahualpa. The epidemic killed an estimated total of 200,000 and certainly contributed to augment the reverential terror inspired in the Indians by the arrival of the bearded demi-gods. The epidemic was either smallpox or measles, probably the latter. (The names of these two soldiers are also given in the historical record as Sanchez and Martin or as Morillo and Bocanegra.) DYE [Measles in people who have no inherited immunity brings extremely high fever and death. It killed many natives worldwide in epidemics following the arrival of explorers and conquerors. -- Patt]

    molle, molle del peru (sp), Peruvian pepper: (n) Schinus molle. The word molle in Schinus molle comes from a Quechua word for the tree, molli. In traditional medicine, S. molle was used in treating a variety of wounds and infections due to its antibacterial and antiseptic properties. It has also been used as an antidepressant and diuretic, and for toothache, rheumatism and menstrual disorders, with recent studies in mice providing possible support for its antidepressant effects. It has also been speculated that S. molle's insecticidal properties make it a good candidate for use as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in pest control. The Inca used the sweet outer part of ripe fruit to make a drink. Berries were rubbed carefully to avoid mixing with the bitter inner parts, the mix strained and then left for a few days to produce a drink. It was also boiled down for syrup or mixed with maize to make nourishing gruel. There is also significant archaeological evidence that the fruits of S. molle were used extensively in the Central  Andes around 550-1000 AD for producing chicha. WIKI One treatment for dropsy [old term for edema] and gout consists of a bath of a salty infusion of the leaves and bark of molle. The Indians employ a fermented drink of the fruits in treating dropsy. The white, fragrant resin from molle is an excellent bone-set if applied in the form of a plaster, and it can be used to heal ulcers. REPC


    Berries and bark of molle. WIKI

    molle de chile (Span): (n) Schinus procerus. When applied to the temples, the resin is said to alleviate headaches. REPC

    monkey puzzle tree,monkey tail tree, pino de Chile, pehuén: (n) Araucaria araucana. An evergreen tree growing to 40 metres (130 ft) tall with a 2 metres (7 ft) trunk diameter. The tree is native to central and southern Chile and Western Argentina. It is the hardiest species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Because of the great age of this species it is sometimes described as a living fossil. Its conservation status was enhanced to endangered by the IUCN in 2013 due to its declining abundance. WIKI When the natives engaged in felling this tree gash themselves severely, they apply the resin of the tree to the wound. There is no doubt that it produces the effect that they want. It is also found to be very helpful as a calmative in cases of ruptures and bruises. REPC

    The monkey puzzle tree. WIKI

    Monnina polystachya: (n) [No common name given.] The bark has been shown to be effective in treating dysentery and asthmatic ailments. Three grains of its powder are taken in the morning and evening at the beginning of the treatment, and the dose continues to increase for several months. REPC

    Monnina polystachya (1805).

    moroy urco, muru-urco: (n) A great woolen chain of many colors, garnished with gold plates and two red fringes at the end, approximately 150 fathoms long, used in public festivals to encircle the Inti Cancha. HOI

    morphic field: (n) A pattern that governs the development of form, structure and arrangement. A mode of transmission of shared informational patterns and archetypes. A morphic field might provide an explanation for the concept of collective unconscious. Morphic fields are defined as the universal database for both organic (living) and abstract (mental) forms. WIKI

    mosoq, musuq: (adj) New. PSL RS

    mosoqchay: (v) To make new. PSL

    mosoq karpay: (n) Literally, new initiation. Rites of passage of the times to come which raise your consciousness to the fifth level. According to the prophecies, at this time the Inca Mallkus will emerge. KOAK

    mosoqmanta: (adv) Again, newly. PSL

    mosoq wata: (n) New year. PSL

    mosoqyay: (v) To become new. PSL

    mosqokuy: See, musqukuy.

    mosquchay, mosqochay: See, musquchay.)

    mosquq: See, musquq.

    mosqoy, mosqhoy, mosqoj: See, musquy.

    much'ana, muchana: (adj) Kissable, adorable. RS  

    much'anakuy, muchanakuy: (v) to kiss each other. RS

    much'ay: (v) To worship, to kiss. QP

    much'ana: (n) Place of worship, altar.

    muchanaco: (n) A ceremonial exchange of gifts. Literally, joint worship. HOI (See, muchani and nacu.)

    muchani: (v) I worship. HOI

    muchuy: (v) To suffer. PSL

    muhu, muju: (n) Seed. PSL QP Can be a literal seed for planting, or the spiritual seed within each person. Living energy is necessary to germinate this seed. QNO The spiritual seed within each person; a karpay can provide the “light and water” necessary to sprout this seed. ANON1 (See, wacho, winay.)

    Muki: (n) Elemental organizing principle. A guide to belly of Pachamama. JLH There is as well a one-legged black imp, the Muki, who dwells in caves and corners and is responsible for things lost, practical jokes, sprained ankles. SRK (See, Urcaguary, Supay.)

    mulla: (n) Child of a woman's brother. ICC

    mulli: (n) The resin of this tree, common in the Cusco region, was used with remarkable results on wounds, which it caused to heal rapidly. ACA

    mullu, muyu: (n) (1) The sacred Spondylus shell, which was worth more than gold to the Inka, Moche, and Chavin, among others. ANON1 Spondylus, a thorny oyster found off the Ecuadorian coast and prized by the Inca because their shells evoked the ocean and life-giving water in the dry climate of the Andean altiplano. NGEO5 Along the Pacific coast of South America, Spondylus grows only in the warm waters of the Ecuadorian coast, but it was traded south to Peru for at least 3,000 years. The Peruvian government recently chose Spondylus to symbolize the new integration with Ecuador. SAAO Spondylus is a genus of bivalve molluscs of the coasts of Peru and Ecuador. Their colors range from orange to red and purple. They have many spines or protrusions from the shell which make them attractive. In pre-Columbian times, Spondylus was also called mullu; they were of high commercial value (comparable to gold in medieval Europe) They played an important part in Inca jewelry, and some pre-Inca cultures as the Chibcha and the Moche cultures, for example. The shells were considered the food of the gods and were offered at almost all the ceremonies. The shells were even found in Central America, indicating that trade or barter among inhabitants of southern Peru and Central America occurred. WAIC (2) Circle, ring, sphere. ANON1 (adj) Round, circular. QP

    mullu khuya: See, chunpi khuyas.

    mummy bundle: (n) A funerary bundle of the Inca culture in which more than one person could be interred; bundles have been found holding as many as seven individuals. Bundles have also contained many objects for use in the afterlife. NGEO3 (See, mallqui, falsa cabeza.)

    paint56.tiff paint57.tiff


    munakuq: (adj) Kind, nice. QP

    munakuy: (v) To love. PSL

    munanakuy: (v) To fall in love, QP

    munaña (AYM): (n) Will or intent. ASD See, intention.

    munapayay: (v) To covet. PSL

    munaq: (n) Lover. QP

    munaqi, munaqe: (adj) Beloved; promised in marriage. RS

    munay: (v) To love, to want, to desire. PSL QP (n) Unconditional, eternal, unreasoned love. Located at the heart center, it is the exercise of power for the shaman.  (See, yachay and llank'ay.) One of the major organizing principles. The first of the Three Inca Laws. It is the law of love. Rather than an emotion, munay is seen as an attitude of respect and appreciation for everyone and everything. (See, saiwa, nuna, chekak, yuya, ch'ulla, kallari, kawsay.) JLH AVO We can speak many languages with the heart. We can communicate with all of the five kingdoms (mineral, vegetable, animal, human and Apukunas, or Light Beings). IGMP

    muña, muna, ccoa: (n) Minthostachys mollis. A variety of a native mint that after being rubbed on the hands releases a scent that when inhaled offers relief to those who are experiencing dizziness, nausea, headaches and other undesirable symptoms due to the altitude. The plant is also utilized to make medicinal infusions for diarrhea and dysentery because of the cold; the leaves are used in a poultice and are an effective antiflammatory. WAC The natives utilize a salt water decoction to treat dropsical [edemic] and gouty swellings and for liver complaints. It is valued also to assuage headaches. The warm infusion is taken as an apperitive and diuretic, to cure severe cholera and melancholy, to cleanse the spleen and reduce oppilations [obstructions]. REPC The leaves and flowers of this herb are taken as infusion or matte, for stomach pains. In cases of altitude sickness, it helps clear the bronchi and dissipate dizziness. It has anti-flatulence properties. It helps to eliminate intestinal parasites. It diminishes the appearance of eye problems (cataracts, myopia and macular degeneration) and helps keep visual acuity. It aids in the prevention of most respiratory problems and helps decongest the airways. Muña leaves are used in the healing of fractures, dislocations, and tumors caused by blows. WIKI [Muña is in the mint family, as is catnip, which may explain why one of the common names of this herb is ccoa. See, koa. - Patt]

    Muña. WIKI

    muñeco, muñequeando (Span): (adj) As lifeless as a rag doll. GOL    

    muraya, meraya, mueraya (Panoan): (n) One of the levels of vegetalista, this shaman is a master of the water and jungle realms. Knowledgable about plants and animals, he is able to live for periods of time in the subaquatic realm, but is unable to ascend to the sky. The muraya must commune with water spirits. The subaquatic realm is considered to be of great importance as a source of power. The muraya rides the Yakumama to the deepest bottom of the water. AYV They live where the world ends, having as their only food the flower of tobacco. MSIN (See, sinchi runa, Tsugki, picture at yakumama.)

    muraya-cai (Panoan): (n) Literally, shaman-makers, psychotropic plants that reveal the real world, while the ordinary world is considered illusory. AYV (See, entheogenic, ordinary world.)

    muricu: (adj) Witty. DYE

    murui-huaira: (n) A whirlwind spirit that takes the soul of anyone who is afraid of him. The victim will have headaches and suffer other bodily illnesses. Only a vegetalista can heal the person with the appropriate icaro. AYV  (See, Killo-runa)

    muru uncuy: (n) Measles or smallpox. DYE

    muscuna: (n) Visionary experience, which the individual must balance with yuyana. WCE (See, musquy.) (See, also, yachaj.)

    Mushuk Wara: See, Qhapaq Raymi.

    muskhiy: (v) To smell. QP

    muspay: (v) To be disoriented. PSL

    musquchay, mosquchay: (v) To appear in another person's dream. RS

    musqukuy, mosqokuy, mosqukuy: (n) A dream. (v) To dream. RS

    musquq, mosquq, mosqoj, mosccoc, moscoc: (n) (1) Seers who divined through dream interpretation. MHP He or she divined through dreams; the person comes to ask him whether he will recover or die and if it is a man who consults him, he asks for his sling, or his purse, or his mantle or any other piece of his clothing; and if it is a woman, he asks for her belt or a similar garment and takes it home and sleeps on it and, depending on his dreams, so he answers. Some of the dream symbolism was recorded by early chroniclers: wading through turbid river waters meant death or a long trip; a nightmare meant also death; the bite of a dog or snake signified that the patient was being poisoned or bewitched; fire meant serious illness; dreaming of an eagle or a falcon would mean that a boy had been conceived, and a girl was signified by a frog; a dog would foretell disgrace; wool or nets presaged sadness; a person without head or hands meant that what the person was thinking of when falling asleep would not come true; crossing a bridge meant a separation from the family very soon; and eating fish signified that severe alcoholic intoxication would occur in the near future. DYE (2) The dreamer. RS

    musquy, mosqoy, mosquy, musqhuy, musqoy: (v) To dream, (n) A dream. PSL Dreamtime; dream world; alternate realms of consciousness. RS JLH

    musqhuy: See, musquy.

    Musuq Watapi sumaq kawsay, Mosoj Watapi sumaj kawsay: (expression) Happy New Year. RS

    mut'uy: (v) To blossom; to sprout; to break forth. PSL

    muyaca: (n) Coccoloba marginata Benth. The Indians consider this shrub to be an excellent diuretic for ailments of the urinary tract. REPC

    Muyaca leaves and flower.

    muyukancha: (n) A corral used for rituals. ROR

    Muyuq Marca: (n) Literally, round place. It was one of the three towers that were in the top of the Incan temple of Sacsahuaman. It is famous because in 1536, at the Battle of Sacsahuaman to end the seige of Cusco, Cahuide, a captain of the Inca army threw himself from the top of the tower to avoid falling into the hands of the Spanish. [See, Cahuide, for more information on his role.] According to chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, this tower was a warehouse of pure water. There were three towers and their sizes were considerable. Garcilaso recounts that underneath the towers were huge tunnels that interconnected with each other; in his childhood he used to play there. WIKI

    A map of Sacsahuaman showing the locations of Muyuq Marca (1) and the
    two other towers, Sallamarca (2)  and Paucamarca (3). (The latter two
    towers were cubicle in shape rather than round like Muyuq Marca.)

    The base of Muyuq Marca as it is today. WIKI

    muyuriy: (v) To turn. QP

    muzpacuni: (v) To talk nonsense in a frenzy. DYE

    muzpaytam rimani: (v) To talk nonsense while asleep. DYE

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First Edition (c) 2007 Patt O'Neill. All rights reserved. This site was originally published 6-13-07
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